Maintaining pH Balance...

1. The Science
2. Physics
3. Microbiology
4. Chemistry
5. Anatomy and Physiology

6. Public Health
7. Prevention
"The countless names of illnesses do not really matter.
What does matter is that they all come from the same root cause...
too much tissue acid waste in the body!"

Theodore A. Baroody, N.D., D.C., Ph.D.
Alkalize or Die: Superior Health Through Proper Alkaline-Acid Balance (1991)

pH range

"Cancer cells cannot survive
in oxygen."

Astrophysicist and astrobiologist
Paul Davies' report
"Exposing cancer's
deep evolutionary roots

Physics World, July 2013.

"acidic microenvironment
can drive cancer cells to spread"

The human metabolism produces
highly acidic wastes,
which must be eliminated.

Acid build-up = health breakdown.

By maintaining body pH slightly above 7.4 cancer cells become dormant and at pH 8.5 cancer cells will die while healthy cells will live.

with nutritious
chemical-free food,
water and exercise

Physical movement in fresh air,
deep breathing, singng, laughing,
dancing, walking, running

daily dietary intake:
20% acid foods and
80% alkaline foods

Diets rich in animal proteins
tend to produce acid build-up
while diets mainly composed
of vegetables alkalize the gut and
take the pressure off kidneys, etc.
Work with your preferred health care providers to determine how best to achieve optimal health and always check with your health care provider before taking a supplement, especially when combining or substituting them with other foods or medicine.


Chronic inflammation is the epidemic of the 21st century–

Humans are meant to be pH balanced: Low oxygen uptake leads to low nutrient absorption.

Human metabolism produces highly acidic waste: 
An inappropriate diet consisting of high glycemic, high glucose and 'processed' foods leads to acidic inflammation in the body. Excess acidic waste accumulates in capillary blood vessels, depriving them of oxygen and essential nutrients, which then leads to immune system "dormancy" - suppression and breakdown.

Acid pH leads to premature ageing
An inflammed condition, aka acidosis will exacerbate health problems and compromise recovery. Aging, in itself, includes potential inflammation and pain. It goes without saying that whatever will eliminate inflammation not only supports the body to heal but also becomes an essential part of an effective anti-aging program.

"85% of disease is caused by emotions."Anon

Not a new idea...
In 1933, Dr William Howard Hay published his ground-breaking book, A New Health Era, in which he demonstrated that all disease is caused by autotoxication (or "self-poisoning") leading to acidosis and lack of oxygen in the body.

"Now we depart from health in just the proportion to which we have allowed our alkalis to be dissipated by introduction of acid-forming food in too great amount... It may seem strange to say that all disease is the same thing, no matter what its myriad modes of expression, but it is verily so."
– William Howard Hay, M.D. A New Health Era (1933)

Think about it!
— Even fish need the correct pH in order to live in a fish tank.
— Plants need the soil in which they grow to have the optimal pH.
— A swimming pool must be pH balanced, or algae will appear.
— Oceans of the world have an optimal pH — they are becoming acidic, and coral reefs are dissolving.

All of these situations can easily be managed.

At heart, humans are naturally happy creatures, but we are not happy when we are stressed, sick, or in pain. Maintaining pH balance helps to minimize stress and disease – and support nutrient absorption. How we live is just as important as what we eat: in other words, relationships, career, spirituality and even getting a good night’s sleep can be just as important as nutrient-dense meals.

Humans are made up of about 50 billion cells, which must maintain pH balance in order to stay alive. According to pioneering cell biologist Dr. Bruce Lipton, each cell has its own brain, and its own digestive, reproductive, and elimination system, which secrete acidic metabolic wastes.

"Chew your drink and drink your food."
– Mahatma Gandhi

Digestion begins in your mouth:
The slower you chew, the less you are inclined to eat
'Speed eating' or gorging and binge eating
contributes to unhealthy weight gain and indigestion.

Unchewed food particles are not welcome in your stomach
Parents often encourage the gulping-down habit
by telling their children to hurry up and finish their meal.
Leptin, ghrelin and cholestokinnen hormones, which signal satiation,
reach their peak about 30 minutes after food is ingested.

Balanced pH enables optimum nutrient absorption.
Blood, lymph, and cerebral spinal fluid in the human body
are designed to be slightly alkaline at a pH of 7.35 to 7.45.
In addition, neutral pH allows ‘living’ probiotics to reach the intestine alive,
so it makes sense to alkalize stomach acids before taking probiotics.

Kidney failure is a life-threatening condition.

The kidneys are the body's waste disposal system.
Kidneys filter blood:
Their #1 job is keeping blood pH stable (pH of 7.35 to 7.45)
by filtering out wastes, toxins and extra fluid via urine:
"Each kidney is made up of about a million filtering units called nephrons.
Each nephron filters a small amount of blood."
(Kidney Health Australia)

Uric acid build-up in the kidneys can cause renal insufficiency

– the inability of the kidneys to filter waste –
The first symptom is
The second symptom is
which can lead to
– gout, arthritis, chronic kidney disease,
kidney stones or kidney failure, hypothyroidism,
– ultimately leading to cellular "de-coupling" from the immune system, aka


"It appears that life first emerged at least 3.8 billion years ago, approximately 750 million years after Earth was formed"
– Cooper & Sunderland, 2000

Cancer cells evolved on earth before oxygen ––
and CAN NOT grow in oxygen.

Why can't cancer cells survive in oxygen?
Here's a clue:

To put it simply, in my high school biology class we learned about
The Biological Era of evolution: that 'single cells' developed on earth before oxygen formed; That cells 'clumped' together inside a 'skin' to protect themselves from oxygen and those 'clumps' evolved to become our 'body' - every body.

'Cells' can
"de-couple from the immune system" when the body is low in oxygen, aka acid pH, acidic, acidotic. They then REVERT to pre-oxygen primordial single-cell status and form new 'clusters' – cancer tumours which live off the 'host' body. According to Professor Paul Davies' report those tumours look very much like early stages of embryonic growth.

Fundamental system breakdown is demonstrated in the way cancer cells "de-couple" from the immune system.
The potential for cancer mutation is deeply embedded in all multi-cellular organisms - mammals, birds, fish and reptiles, with deep evolutionary roots going back hundreds of millions of years.

Nutritional health plays a major role in personal resilience.
Nutrition is the primary contributor to brain function, memory and concentration. Poor health is a leading cause of anxiety, anger, depression and much more. Most people have no idea that they are actually suffering from physical health issues caused by food intolerances and poor digestion.

Lifestyle, nutrition, mental and emotional health
are all interconnected
If one or more of these parts breaks down, they can cause other parts to break down. Conversely, working on one or more of the parts helps repair all of the parts. With an integrated approach and greater awareness of what constitutes a resilient healthy state of being, we can restore good health.

A Wake-up Call
"Every cancer is different, every person is different and every treatment plan will be different. There are many paths to recovery, but through my research and interviews I have found that cancer survivors often responded to their diagnoses in a similar way: they shared a tendency to view their illness not as a death threat, but as a wake-up call, and they showed a willingness to embrace radical, positive change. While it might be tempting to bury your head in the sand, abdicating responsibility won’t help you heal. So rise up, read up and take the reins. The road to health starts with being fully informed.”
– Laura Bond, Mum's Not Having Chemo: Cutting-Edge Therapies, Real-Life Stories, a Road-Map to Healing from Cancer.

We each need to do our own research.
We each need to become our own health maintenance detective.
We each need to listen to our own 'body language' because every body is different.

"Paying attention to acid-alkaline balance is one of the most crucial ways you can affect your health status. It impacts immunity, digestion, bone strength, symptoms of joint disease, hormones, and the function of essential internal organs." – Susan Lark, M.D., co-author (2000),
The Chemistry of Success: Six Secrets of Peak Performance

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1. The Science

Awesome 2013 results!
Interdisciplinary 'Battery of Tests' on Cancer Cells:

Understanding the Transition to Cancer Metastasis
Network of Physical Scientists, Engineers, & Cancer Researchers

A team of 95 physicists, engineers, mathematicians, chemists, computational scientists and biologists working on different experiments in 20 US laboratories has gained a new perspective on cancer by pooling their research in a coordinated way. ... The research was conducted by the network of 12 Physical Sciences-Oncology Centers around the country (PS-OCs), under the auspices of the Office of Physical Sciences-Oncology at the National Cancer Institute. The centers were set up 3 years ago to foster collaboration between physical scientists, biologists and oncologists in order to achieve new insights into cancer.

Abstract excerpt:
To investigate the transition from non-cancerous to metastatic from a physical sciences perspective, the Physical Sciences–Oncology Centers (PS-OC) Network performed molecular and biophysical comparative studies of the non-tumorigenic MCF-10A and metastatic MDA-MB-231 breast epithelial cell lines, commonly used as models of cancer metastasis. ... >>> more

"Cancer: The beat of an ancient drum"
April 2011
Professor Davies explains how he came to discover the source of cancer.

Excerpt: Forty years ago President Richard Nixon declared a "war on cancer". Yet in spite of $100bn (£60bn) of taxpayer-funded research in the US alone, the cancer mortality rate remains little changed. Dozens of much-hyped "cures" developed by drug companies are either useless or have marginal effect. What can be done?

Two years ago, in a spectacularly enlightened move, the US National Cancer Institute (NCI) decided to enlist the help of physical scientists. The idea was to bring fresh insights from disciplines like physics to help tackle cancer in radical new ways. Twelve research centres were created to focus the effort, and I was approached to run the one based at Arizona State University. >>> more

Professor Ian Davis MB BS PhD FRACP FAChPM is a medical oncologist, cancer immunologist, clinician-scientist, and NHMRC Practitioner Fellow. He is Professor of Medicine, Monash University and Eastern Health, and Head of the Eastern Health Clinical School (EHCS). . . >>> more
Central Clinical School, Monash University
Published on Oct 25, 2015
Professor Davis describes how the understanding of cancer and its treatments in the last thirty years has become far more differentiated and complex, tailored to the specific condition.
4:27 "The truth of the matter is that there have only been a handful of genuine breakthroughs in the last century"
5:10 Molecular mechanisms of cancer
Prostate cancer
Renal cell carcinoma &
its pathways and targets
Immune checkpoints

Your Inner Fish
A journey into the 3.5-Billion-Year History of the Human Body
by Neil Shubin, Professor of Anatomy, and scientific illustrator Kalliopi Monoyios at the University of Chicago.
Free Teaching Tools
In Your Inner Fish, Neil Shubin tells the story of evolution by tracing the organs of the human body back millions of years, long before the first creatures walked the earth. By examining fossils and DNA, Shubin shows us that our hands actually resemble fish fins, our head is organized like that of a long-extinct jawless fish, and major parts of our genome look and function like those of worms and bacteria. We have compiled the figures from the book into a deck of PowerPoint slides for use in the classroom. Download here:
Your Inner Fish

What are mitochondria and how did we come to have them?

Steven Zuryn, Group Leader, The University of Queensland
September 22, 2017

Our primordial ancestor was a simple single-celled creature,
living in a long-term rut of evolutionary stagnation. Then something dramatic happened – an event that would literally breathe life into the eventual evolution of complex organisms. One of the cells engulfed another and enslaved it as a perpetual source of energy for its host.

The increase in available energy to the cell powered the formation of more complex organisms with multiple cells, eyes, and brains. Slowly, the two species became intertwined – sharing some of their DNA and delegating specific cellular tasks – until eventually they became firmly hardwired to each other to form the most intimate of biological relationships. Two separate species became one.

These energy slaves are the mitochondria, and there are hundreds or even thousands of them inside every one of your cells (with the exception of red blood cells) and in every other human alive. They still resemble their bacterial origin in appearance, but we can no longer exist without them, nor they without us. The evolutionary explosion powered by mitochondria is evident by the fact they are found in every complex multicellular organism that has ever existed, from giraffes to palm trees, mushrooms and dinosaurs. >>> more

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2. Physics

Why should we listen to an Astrophysicist?
Astrophysicists "seek to understand the universe and our place in it." NASA

Generally speaking, cancer cell proliferation follows a pattern:
"When a physical process follows a pattern, physicists can bring valuable insights from their discipline."
Paul Davies

Dr. Paul Davies explains how and why cancer cells
"de-couple" from the immune system.

With a background in fundamental theoretical physics and cosmology, astrophysics and astrobiology Paul Davies began asking why cancer exists, and found that when cells "de-couples" from the body's immune system they form a "cancer tumour" that looks like the early stages of embryonic development – that will eat you alive. (See his collaborative cancer research here)

"Cancer has long been recognised as a throwback to a "selfish cell" era. But recent advances in research permit us to embellish this picture. For example, cancer cells thrive in low-oxygen (even zero-oxygen) conditions, reverting to an earlier, albeit less efficient, form of metabolism known as fermentation." –– Paul Davies

Exposing cancer's deep evolutionary roots
Dr. Paul Davies, Physics World, July 2013

Single-celled organisms act to preserve themselves, while cells in multicellular organisms act for the greater good.

The embryonic formation of the body and all of its organs are a choice the single-cell makes to become mortal, within the immune system, and cancer is a mutation that unfolds when the cell "de-couples" from an “inflamed” immune system. ...

... The genomes of nearly all healthy human cells, containing the entirety of an individual’s inherited information, evidently come pre-loaded with a “cancer sub-routine” that is normally idle but can be triggered into action by a wide variety of insults, such as chemicals, radiation and inflammation.

... Single-celled organisms replicate by division and are in a sense immortal. In multi-cellular organisms, immortality is relinquished and the genetic legacy of the organism is outsourced to specialized sex cells – eggs and sperm – known as the germ line.

Evidence is mounting that the micro-environment at the cells’ destination plays a key role in the success of metastasis. … deep links between embryogenesis and tumorigenesis have been found …

... As the complex regulatory mechanisms of the body break down, the cancer defaults to earlier and earlier phenotypes, with the most malignant cells representing the most ancestral forms. ...

There is a quite different additional link between cancer and early forms of life.
Cancer cells tend to adopt an ancient mode of metabolism known as fermentation, or glycolysis, which takes place in the cytoplasm of the cell. In contrast, healthy cells mostly use a process known as oxidation-phosphorylation, or ox-phos, which is performed within tiny organelles called mitochondria. The characteristics of fermentation are its ability to flourish in low-oxygen conditions (hypoxia), its high demand for sugar (glucose) and a low-pH environment – all conditions characteristic of tumours. Could it be, we wonder, that cancer’s predilection for a hypoxic environment reflects the prevailing conditions on Earth at the time when multicellularity first evolved, before the second great oxygenation event?

"Exposing cancer's deep evolutionary roots

Physics World, July 2013.

Download (pdf)

"Cancer can teach us about our own evolution"
November 2012
"By asking ourselves why cancer might exist, we can get a glimpse of life in a bygone biological age...." >>> more

Visit Paul Davies website


"Charles Lineweaver, of the Australian National University, and I have proposed a theory of cancer based on its ancient evolutionary roots."
– Davies, 2012

"Cancer can teach us about our own evolution"
The Guardian, Monday 19 November 2012, Dr Paul Davies, explains:

Medical science treats cancer as a disease in which rogue cells proliferate uncontrollably, running amok around the body. Therapy focuses on killing the cancer before it kills the host. Unfortunately, the emphasis on cancer cells as defective loose cannons is at odds with the stubborn way they outwit both the body's defences and the physician's armoury.

Cancer is such a ruthless adversary because it behaves as if it has its own fiendishly cunning agenda. Cancer cells come pre-programmed to execute a well-defined cascade of changes, seemingly designed to facilitate both their enhanced survival and their dissemination through the bloodstream. There is even an air of conspiracy in the way that tumours use chemical signals to create cancer-friendly niches in remote organs.

In the frantic search for an elusive "cure", few researchers stand back and ask a very basic question: why does cancer exist? What is its place in the grand story of life? Astonishingly, in spite of decades of research, there is no agreed theory of cancer, no explanation for why, inside almost all healthy cells, there lurks a highly efficient cancer subroutine that can be activated by a variety of agents – radiation, chemicals, inflammation and infection.

Cancer, it seems, is embedded in the basic machinery of life, a type of default state that can be triggered by some kind of insult. That suggests it is not a modern aberration but has deep evolutionary roots, a suspicion confirmed by the fact that it is not confined to humans but is widespread among mammals, fish, reptiles and even plants. Scientists have identified genes implicated in cancer that are thought to be hundreds of millions of years old. Clearly, we will fully understand cancer only in the context of biological history.
Charles Lineweaver, of the Australian National University, and I have proposed a theory of cancer based on its ancient evolutionary roots.
>>> more

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3. Microbiology

July 2006
Questions answered by Neil Saunders, Computational biologist

• Why do aerobic organisms need oxygen?
• How do anaerobic organisms live without oxygen?
• Why are some anaerobes facultative and others obligate?
• Why is oxygen toxic for obligate anaerobes? >>> more

Often cited clinical studies include:

– Understanding the Warburg Effect: The Metabolic Requirements of Cell Proliferation
"Here we propose that the metabolism of cancer cells, and indeed all proliferating cells, is adapted to facilitate the uptake and incorporation of nutrients into the biomass (e.g., nucleotides, amino acids, and lipids) needed to produce a new cell. Supporting this idea are recent studies..." >>> more

– Aubrey Keith Brewer, Ph.D. (1893-1986) founded the Brewer International Science Library. Read Dr. Brewer's words about his interest in cancer treatment and how this culminated in the development of his High pH Cancer Therapy.

Fermentation, mitochondria and regulation (2012)
Fermentation reactions occur in the cytoplasm of both prokaryotic and eukaryotic cells. In the absence of oxygen, pyruvate does not enter the mitochondria in eukaryotic cells.

How Fermentation Gives Us Beer, Wine, Cheese — and Cancer? (2015)
Even in the presence of oxygen, cancer cells and some bacteria prefer fermentation, a new study finds. "... some researchers are coming around to the idea that the ultimate pathologic insult might be impaired or altered energy production." >>> more

Sartori H. E. (1984):
Nutrients and cancer: an introduction to cesium therapy.
The rationale for this approach termed the "high pH" therapy resides in changing the acidic pH range of the cancer cell by cesium towards weak alkalinity in which the survival of the cancer cell is endangered, and the formation of acidic and toxic materials, normally formed in cancer cells, is neutralized and eliminated.

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4. Chemistry

“Cancer, above all other diseases, has countless secondary causes. But, even for cancer, there is only one prime cause. Summarized in a few words, the prime cause of cancer is the replacement of the respiration of oxygen in normal body cells by a fermentation of sugar.” Professor Otto Heinrich Warburg

(i) The Warburg Effect: How Does it Benefit Cancer Cells?
Trends Biochem Sci. 2016 Mar; 41(3): 211–218.
Cancer cells rewire their metabolism to promote growth, survival, proliferation, and long-term maintenance. The common feature of this altered metabolism is increased glucose uptake and fermentation of glucose to lactate. This phenomenon is observed even in the presence of completely functioning mitochondria and together is known as the Warburg Effect. The Warburg Effect has been documented for over 90 years and extensively studied over the past 10 years with thousands of papers reporting to have established either its causes or its functions. Despite this intense interest, the function of the Warburg Effect remains unclear. Here, we analyze several proposed biological explanations for the Warburg Effect, emphasize their rationale, and discuss their controversies.
>>> more

Cell Physiology

Professor Warburg (1883-1970), won the Nobel Prize in 1931 for his pioneering research in the chemistry of Cell Physiology, the process of oxidation, at the Kaiser Wilhelm Institute for Biology, Berlin-Dahlem, Germany, where he discovered that cancer cells were low in oxygen due to a change in cellular respiration from using oxygen to using fermentation of sugar.
Warburg's Nobel Prize committee biography was written in 1931 and updated in 1965:

For his discovery of the nature and mode of action of the respiratory enzyme, the Nobel Prize has been awarded to him in 1931. This discovery has opened up new ways in the fields of cellular metabolism and cellular respiration. He has shown, among other things, that cancerous cells can live and develop, even in the absence of oxygen. >>> more

The following excerpt gives an important insight:
Otto Warburg's 1956 paper, On the Origin of Cancer Cells,

Science  24 Feb 1956: Vol. 123, Issue 3191, pp. 309-314, DOI: 10.1126/science.123.3191.309).

What was formerly only qualitative has now become quantitative. What was formerly only probable has now become certain. The era in which the fermentation of the cancer cells or its importance could be disputed is over, and no one today can doubt that we understand the origin of cancer cells if we know how their large fermentation originates, or, to express it more fully, if we know how the damaged respiration and the excessive fermentation of the cancer cells originate.

Energy of respiration and fermentation
We now know the chemical mechanisms of respiration and fermentation almost completely, but we do not need this knowledge for what follows, since energy alone will be the centre of our considerations. We need to know no more of respiration and fermentation here than that they are energy-producing reactions and that they synthesise the energy-rich adenosine triphosphate, through which the energy of respiration and fermentation is then made available for life. Since it is known how much adenosine triphosphate can be synthesised by respiration and how much by fermentation, we can write immediately the potential, biologically utilizable energy production of any cells if we have measured their respiration and fermentation. … the cancer cells can obtain approximately the same amount of energy from fermentation as from respiration, whereas the normal body cells obtain much more energy from respiration than from fermentation. For example, the liver and kidney of an adult animal obtain about 100 times as much energy from respiration as from fermentation.

I shall not consider aerobic fermentation, which is a result of the interaction of respiration and fermentation, because aerobic fermentation is too labile and too dependent on external conditions.
Of importance for the considerations that follow are only the two stable independent metabolic processes, respiration and anaerobic fermentation – respiration which is measured by the oxygen consumption of cells that are saturated with oxygen, and fermentation, which is measured by the formation of lactic acid in the absence of oxygen. >>> more

(ii) The Budwig Protocol is a process which stimulates the body's oxygen supply.
Nominated for the Nobel Prize in Medicine six times, Dr. Johanna Budwig, (1908-2003), was a German chemist, physicist, pharmacist and health practitioner, and a senior expert on fats and oils, and pharmaceuticals for the German Government.

Visit The Budwig Center's website:
The original natural cancer treatment clinic and protocol
Download the official Budwig Cancer Food Plan free of charge.

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5. Anatomy and Physiology
The following text is a gift of the Open Education program at BCcampus Open textbooks, British Columbia, Canada. Below is a short list of relevant excerpts:
Human Anatomy and Physiology is designed for the two-semester anatomy and physiology course taken by life science and allied health students. The textbook follows the scope and sequence of most Human Anatomy and Physiology courses, and its coverage and organization were informed by hundreds of instructors who teach the course. Instructors can customize the book, adapting it to the approach that works best in their classroom.

>>> more

Chapter 1. An Introduction to the Human Body
Learning Objectives
By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Discuss the role of oxygen and nutrients in maintaining human survival
• Explain why extreme heat and extreme cold threaten human survival
• Explain how the pressure exerted by gases and fluids influences human survival


Atmospheric air is only about 20 percent oxygen, but that oxygen is a key component of the chemical reactions that keep the body alive, including the reactions that produce ATP. Brain cells are especially sensitive to lack of oxygen because of their requirement for a high-and-steady production of ATP. Brain damage is likely within five minutes without oxygen, and death is likely within ten minutes.

Chapter 3. The Cellular Level of Organization
3.6 Cellular Differentiation

By the end of this section, you will be able to:

• Discuss how the generalized cells of a developing embryo or the stem cells of an adult organism become differentiated into specialized cells
• Distinguish between the categories of stem cells


How does a complex organism such as a human develop from a single cell—a fertilized egg—into the vast array of cell types such as nerve cells, muscle cells, and epithelial cells that characterize the adult? Throughout development and adulthood, the process of cellular differentiation leads cells to assume their final morphology and physiology. Differentiation is the process by which unspecialized cells become specialized to carry out distinct functions.

Stem Cells
A stem cell is an unspecialized cell that can divide without limit as needed and can, under specific conditions, differentiate into specialized cells. Stem cells are divided into several categories according to their potential to differentiate.
The first embryonic cells that arise from the division of the zygote are the ultimate stem cells; these stems cells are described as totipotent because they have the potential to differentiate into any of the cells needed to enable an organism to grow and develop.

The embryonic cells that develop from totipotent stem cells and are precursors to the fundamental tissue layers of the embryo are classified as pluripotent. A pluripotent stem cell is one that has the potential to differentiate into any type of human tissue but cannot support the full development of an organism. These cells then become slightly more specialized, and are referred to as multipotent cells. . . .

Chapter 20. The Cardiovascular System: Blood Vessels and Circulation

Figure 1. Cardiovascular Circulation. The pulmonary circuit moves blood from the right side of the heart to the lungs and back to the heart. The systemic circuit moves blood from the left side of the heart to the head and body and returns it to the right side of the heart to repeat the cycle. The arrows indicate the direction of blood flow, and the colors show the relative levels of oxygen concentration.

Chapter 25. The Urinary System

After studying this chapter, you will be able to:
• Describe the composition of urine
• Label structures of the urinary system
• Characterize the roles of each of the parts of the urinary system
• Illustrate the macroscopic and microscopic structures of the kidney
• Trace the flow of blood through the kidney
• Outline how blood is filtered in the kidney nephron
• Provide symptoms of kidney failure
• List some of the solutes filtered, secreted, and reabsorbed in different parts of the nephron
• Describe the role of a portal system in the kidney
• Explain how urine osmolarity is hormonally regulated
• Describe the regulation of major ions by the kidney
• Summarize the role of the kidneys in maintaining acid–base balance

The urinary system has roles you may be well aware of: cleansing the blood and ridding the body of wastes probably come to mind. However, there are additional, equally important functions played by the system. Take for example, regulation of pH, a function shared with the lungs and the buffers in the blood. Additionally, the regulation of blood pressure is a role shared with the heart and blood vessels. What about regulating the concentration of solutes in the blood? Did you know that the kidney is important in determining the concentration of red blood cells? Eighty-five percent of the erythropoietin (EPO) produced to stimulate red blood cell production is produced in the kidneys. The kidneys also perform the final synthesis step of vitamin D production, converting calcidiol to calcitriol, the active form of vitamin D.

If the kidneys fail, these functions are compromised or lost altogether, with devastating effects on homeostasis. The affected individual might experience weakness, lethargy, shortness of breath, anemia, widespread edema (swelling), metabolic acidosis, rising potassium levels, heart arrhythmias, and more. Each of these functions is vital to your well-being and survival. The urinary system, controlled by the nervous system, also stores urine until a convenient time for disposal and then provides the anatomical structures to transport this waste liquid to the outside of the body. Failure of nervous control or the anatomical structures leading to a loss of control of urination results in a condition called incontinence.

Watch this video from the Howard Hughes Medical Institute for an introduction to the urinary system.

Kidney Function
Dr. Richard Lifton, along with student volunteers, uses an aquarium and salt to illustrate the amount of work the kidney performs each day to maintain proper levels of ions in the body.

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6. Public Health
The Alkaline Diet:
Is There Evidence That an Alkaline pH Diet Benefits Health?

Gerry K. Schwalfenberg
October 2012, Journal of Environmental and Public Health
There may be some value in considering an alkaline diet in reducing morbidity and mortality from chronic diseases and further studies are warranted in this area of medicine. ... Life on earth depends on appropriate pH levels in and around living organisms and cells. Human life requires a tightly controlled pH level in the serum of about 7.4 (a slightly alkaline range of 7.35 to 7.45) to survive >>>more

What are Oxalates?
Oxalates, aka oxalac acid, occur in plants, and warm blooded animals, such as humans, and are produced by the liver.
Oxalic acid is needed by our body: Not all acids are bad. E.g. Omega 3 is an essential fatty acid. "One of the main health concerns about oxalate is that it can bind to minerals in the gut and prevent the body from absorbing them."
– Franziska Spritzler, RD, CDE

While researchers continue to explore measurement techniques in defining foods containing high and low oxalate, a healthy and varied diet will contain about 200-300 mg of oxalates per day.

“... concentrations of oxalic acid are pretty low in most plants and plant-based foods, but there’s enough in spinach, chard and beet greens to interfere with the absorption of the calcium these plants also contain. For example, although the calcium in spinach is 115 mg per half cup cooked, because of the interference of oxalic acid, you would have to eat more than 16 cups of raw or more than eight cups of cooked spinach to get the amount of calcium available in one cup of yogurt.” Dr. Andrew Weil, M.D.

See additional Oxalates research reports HERE.

Selected Reports
(i) What is Nephropathy?
By Dr Tomislav Meštrovic, MD, PhD
January 2016, News: Medical Life Sciences
Nephropathy is a broad medical term used to denote disease or damage of the kidney, which can eventually result in kidney failure. The primary and most obvious functions of the kidney are to excrete any waste products and to regulate the water and acid-base balance of the body – therefore loss of kidney function is a potentially fatal condition.

Nephropathy is considered a progressive illness; in other words, as kidneys become less and less effective over time (with the progression of the disease), the condition of the patient gets worse if left untreated. This is the reason why it is pivotal to receive adequate diagnosis and treatment as early as possible.

>>> more

"Diabetic nephropathy can be reversed by a relatively simple dietary intervention. Whether reduced glucose metabolism mediates the protective effects of the ketogenic diet remains to be determined." – Poplawski, et. al. (2011), Reversal of Diabetic Nephropathy by a Ketogenic Diet, PLoS One. 2011; 6(4): e18604. >>> more

New study warns of potential kidney damage due to overdosing on 'juicing' with high oxalate foods.
"Green Smoothie Cleanse" Causing Acute Oxalate Nephropathy.

Makkapati S, D'Agati VD, Balsam L.
August 2017, NCBI
Given the increasing popularity of juice cleanses, it is important that both patients and physicians have greater awareness of the potential for acute oxalate nephropathy in susceptible individuals with risk factors such as chronic kidney disease, gastric bypass, and antibiotic use. >>> more

(ii) Tumor cells engineer acidity to drive cell invasion
Estrella, V., et al.
January 25, 2013, (Moffitt Cancer Center) Science Daily
Researchers at Moffitt Cancer Center and colleagues at Wayne State University School of Medicine investigated the acidity in solid tumors to determine if pH levels play a role in cancer cell invasion in surrounding tissues.
They found that an acidic microenvironment can drive cancer cells to spread and propose that neutralizing pH would inhibit further invasion, providing a therapeutic opportunity to slow the progression of cancers. ... acidity in solid tumors is the result of an increased fermentative metabolism combined with poor delivery of blood to tissues. >>> more

(iii) Acidity generated by the tumor microenvironment drives local invasion.
Estrella V., et al.
March 2013, Cancer Research, NCIB
Abstract excerpt:
The pH of solid tumors is acidic due to increased fermentative metabolism and poor perfusion. It has been hypothesized that acid pH promotes local invasive growth and metastasis. … >>> more

(iv) Treatment of acute metabolic acidosis:
a pathophysiologic approach

Jeffrey A. Kraut & Nicolaos E. Madias,
September 2012, Nature Reviews Nephrology 8, 589–601
Abstract excerpt: Acute metabolic acidosis is associated with increased morbidity and mortality because of its depressive effects on cardiovascular function, facilitation of cardiac arrhythmias, stimulation of inflammation, suppression of the immune response, and other adverse effects. Appropriate evaluation of acute metabolic acidosis includes assessment of acid–base parameters, including pH... >>> more

(v) Alkalosis
Acid/Base Disorders: Metabolic Alkalosis
Nishank Jain, Robert Reilly
December 2016, Renal and Urology
How does one make the diagnosis of metabolic alkalosis and differentiate simple from mixed disturbances?
Metabolic alkalosis is due either to a gain in bicarbonate or a bicarbonate precursor (HCO3-), loss of hydrogen ion (H+) or the loss of fluid that contains Cl- in higher concentration and bicarbonate in lower concentration than serum. The brainstem is sensitive to interstitial and cellular H+changes and the decline in H+with metabolic alkalosis inhibits ventilation (respiratory compensation). In simple metabolic alkalosis the resultant compensatory alveolar hypoventilation leads to an increase in arterial carbon dioxide content (PaCO2).  . . .
The evaluation of a patient with suspected metabolic alkalosis on a set of arterial blood gases involves four simple steps: >>> more

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7. Prevention
It really is all about PREVENTION
Maintaining pH balance is the best way to prevent illness over a long life of good health and vitality.

Now we know: The human metabolism produces highly acidic wastes, and when these are not eliminated properly acidosis occurs, which then leads to major health breakdown - physical and psychological.

Why do we continue to use hard-hitting therapies against cancer?
Chemotherapy 'attacks' the proliferating capacity of cancer cells which is the main characteristic and strength of cancer cells. Astrophysicist and astrobiologist Paul Davies believes we should target cancer at its weak point – by increasing oxygen uptake. Download Paul Davies' report (pdf)
"Exposing cancer's deep evolutionary roots
Physics World, July 2013.

"Our body replaces 1 billion cells every hour.
Everything we think, feel, do, and eat in an hour influences that cell replacement more than stem cell therapy."

– Dr. Bruce Lipton, The Biology of Belief (2005)
(Stanford University stem-cell research pioneer.

NOTE: Bruce Lipton released his best-selling 2005 book,
The Biology of Belief
on the 10th anniversary.
FREE Download – The Biology of Belief

Empowering the Immune System
Maintain pH balance for maximum oxygen and nutrient uptake.

(i) Indoor air can be more polluted than outdoor air. Urban swellers spend most of their time indoors - in cars, offices, shopping mall, gyms. Physical movement in fresh air delivers oxygen to the cells - deep breathing, singing, laughing, dancing, walking, running, cycling, yoga, tai chi, sports, etc. increases oxygen uptake while releasing carbon dioxide from the lungs.

(ii) Good nutrition also delivers oxygen to the cells, while processed foods, and too much coffee, meat, alcohol, sugar, fruit, etc. will increase the acid burden on the kidneys.

See key information on nutrients here

The body pH scale ranges from 0 to 14: numbers below 7 are acidic (low on oxygen) and numbers above 7 are alkaline (high oxygen).
pH range
Learn how to read pH Test Strips via Wikipedia

pH-defined"The pH of the internal environment, the basic 'ground' biochemical terrain, can tolerate more significant changes than that of the blood, but the pH of the internal environment should never go beyond 7.36 or 7.42 if good health is to be maintained. ...The acidification of the internal terrain is in fact the source of all health troubles caused by acidity."
– Christopher Vasey N.D
., renowned Swiss researcher and author of
The Acid-Alkaline Diet for Optimum Health

Testing your pH is easy.
pH monitoring shows how the kidneys respond to diet and oxygen uptake. Use pH test strips regularly for accurate monitoring of pH levels.

Many medical practitioners use Roche Cumbur Test strips or Siemens Multistix strips, which test more than pH levels. Hydrion stips test only pH levels.

"Routine testing of the urine with multiparameter strips is the first step in the diagnosis of a wide range of diseases. The analysis includes testing for the presence of proteins, glucose, ketones, haemoglobin, bilirubin, urobilinogen, acetone, nitrite and leucocytes as well as testing of pH and specific gravity or to test for infection by different pathogens." – Source

pH chart

Quick Remedy
– Bi-Carbonate Soda before bed
– Apple Cider Vinegar before breakfast

Taking bi-carb soda before bed will allow your kidneys to rest overnight.
Firstly, purchase pH strips, and then test your urine (mid-stream) first thing in the morning, before breakfast, or at least two hours after eating.

(1) Neutralise pH with Bi-Carbonate of Soda
If you find you have an acid pH reading, you can instantly alkalize with a 1/4 teaspoon of bi-carbonate soda in a small glass of water at least two hours before or after eating (sip clean water to wash away salty taste and only drink water until your next meal.)
Bi-carb is safe to take every night.

(2) ReActivate Digestive Juices with Apple Cider Vinegar
Before your next meal, take 1 teaspoon of apple cider vinegar in a shot-glass of water to reactivate digestive juices – and to prevent alkalosis.
This is also a good time to take probiotics as neutral pH allows ‘living’ probiotics to reach to the intestine alive.

(i) What is bicarbonate?
And, where is bicarbonate produced in the body?

Your kidneys and lungs balance the levels of carbon dioxide, bicarbonate, and carbonic acid in the blood. This test measures the level of bicarbonate in a sample of blood from a vein. Bicarbonate is a chemical that acts as a buffer. It keeps the pH of blood from becoming too acidic. >>> more

(ii) Antibacterial activity of baking soda.
Drake D. (1996)

The antibacterial activity of baking soda (sodium bicarbonate) was assessed using three different experimental approaches. . . . Use of oral health care products with high concentrations of baking soda could conceivably result in decreased levels of cariogenic S mutans in saliva and plaque. >>> more

(iii) Antifungal activity of sodium bicarbonate against fungal agents causing superficial infections.
Letscher-Bru V, et al. (2013)

Although sodium bicarbonate-NaHCO(3) (SB) has many domestic and medical, traditional and empirical uses, only little scientific documentation of its activity is available. The aims of this study were to investigate the antifungal activity of SB on the three fungal groups (yeasts, dermatophytes and molds) responsible for human skin and nail infections. . . . In conclusion, we documented the antifungal activity of SB on the most common agents of cutaneous fungal infection and onychomycosis, and we specified the effective concentrations for the different groups of pathogenic fungi. The mechanism of action of SB has yet to be explored. >>> more


Humans are meant to be pH balanced.
Acidosis is caused by low oxygen uptake which leads to low nutrient absorption followed by suppressed immune system.

Symptoms of aging follow inefficient excretion of acidic waste.
Excess acidic waste gradually accumulates in capillary blood vessels, slowly clogging them and depriving them of oxygen and essential nutrients. Remember, the skin is an organ too, and the consequence of slow organ deterioration is premature ageing.

Prevent disease, cancer, AND premature ageing.
When body pH is slightly above 7.4, cancer cells become dormant and at pH 8.5 cancer cells will die while healthy cells will live. (Davies, 2013)

When does premature ageing begin?
Babies remain alkaline while breast-feeding, but they will be susceptible to acidosis as soon as they are given solid foods. Thus, ageing begins when a child is weaned. An unborn child draws nutrients from the mother's alkaline minerals. This explains why pregnant women are advised to take nutrient supplements to sustain their energy and appetite.


Lemon acidity is neutralised during the digestion process.
A few un-squeezed lemon slices in a jug of water = a delicious alkalizing drink.

Believing that you received more sleep than you did is enough to give your brain some of the positive effects of sleep. "How to put your mind to sleep" and 'associate positivity' with sleeping


(Or were too tired to think about)
National Sleep Research Project

Harvard School of Medicine
Health Watch suggests six reasons to get enough sleep:

William F. Dougherty, PsyD.

Go to Sleep Studies page

Every body is different, so get to know your own body.
And remember, we need balanced pH for max. nutrient uptake.
Recommended daily dietary intake:
20% acid foods and 80% alkaline foods

Diets rich in animal proteins tend to produce acidic urine,
while diets mainly composed of vegetables tend to produce alkali urine.

Drink more water: 
Increase water intake to help flush out toxins.
Dr Batmanghelidj recommended drinking 8 x 8 oz glasses of water a day
(aka 8x8), depending on body size.
Drink plain water between meals in the afternoon
to allow your stomach time to rest and replenish digestive juices.
NOTE: sparkling mineral water is acid pH, along with all soft drinks.

Digestion begins with the flow of digestive juices in the mouth,
therefore, it is essential to chew food thoroughly.

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